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  • Ace Mendoza posted an update 3 days, 15 hours ago

    Mean Median Standard deviation Mean Median Standard deviation Mean Median Standard deviation Mean Median Standard deviation p-Value Participation in support association or group Yes No Mean Median Standard deviation Mean Median Standard deviation p-ValuePearson\’s Chi-squared test, Mann–Whitney test and Kruskal–Wallis test.aDiscussionRegarding the socio-demographic characterization, there was a predominance of female ostomized patients, with a mean age of 67 years, married, retired and who did not participate in support groups or associations, which is in line with other studies involving patients with an intestinal stoma.1,4–6,9–11With respect to data related to the stoma, in the majority of patients, the cause of making the stoma was neoplasia, their stoma was of colostomy type, with a permanent stoma measuring between 20 and 40 mm of diameter and using a two-piece device. Most individuals lived with the stoma for up to 4 years. These findings corroborate the results of several studies.1,4,5,11In this study, the patients evaluated had mean scores of the Scale for Health RPC1063 of Control. For the dimensions Externality-chance for health and Externality-powerful others, the scores were low. With respect to the mean of the Herth Hope Scale and Self-rating Scale for Spirituality, the scores were normal.By comparing sociodemographic and stoma data with the use of the instruments Scale for Health Locus of Control, Herth Hope Scale, and Self-rating Scale for Spirituality, one can see that there were changes and statistical significance in the following variables: age group, female gender, singles subjects and retirees, and the cause of making the stoma was neoplasia, with the use of a permanent stoma, living with an ostomy for up to four years, and not participating in support association or group. These findings imply that the individuals who participated in this study do not believe that professionals or people involved in the care can control their health status, and also do not believe in divine intervention; on the other hand, they believe that they themselves control their health.The health locus of control is a model that questions whether the belief of the individual, i.e., his/her motivation (internal and external) determines the action to be taken. Those who believe that the results, at least in part, are dependent on the actions taken, are considered internally oriented; those who follow an external orientation generally do not believe or do not strongly believe in the external relation of the outcome and of the individual action.25 The beliefs influence people with a stoma in the perception and expression of hope in the their improvement or cure, courage to perform self-care, courage to react and to fight against prejudice and stigma that their will face in their day-to-day lives, and how to deal with such a situation in the conviviality with a stomized human being.26–28Spirituality and religion are related to each other, but although these concepts are often used interchangeably, they do not share the same characteristics. Spirituality is something broader and more personal, and is related to a set of inner values, inner wholeness, harmony, and connection with others; it stimulates an interest in others and in ourselves and looks for a unity with life, nature, and the universe. Spirituality is what gives meaning to life, regardless of one\’s religion, and thus, generates the capacity to endure debilitating feelings of guilt, anger, and anxiety; furthermore, spiritualist aspects can mobilize positive energies and improve the quality of life.29,30 When it comes to ostomized people, spirituality can be contemplated as one of the coping resources in performing self-care and rehabilitation.